This antique city was established on the hill where today’s Club Pigale and Disco and A’la Carte Restaurant of the Kuştur Holiday Clubs are located. Pygela is the world’s very first health city. The King of Argos, Agamemnon, founded the Pigale in Kuşadası and Agamemnon City in İzmir specifically “to rest his soldiers and to fix his armada” during the Trojan Wars which lasted for almost ten years.
Both cities succeeded in improving the soldiers’ mental and physical health which had deteriorated during war with the help of the healing spring waters available in their proximity. The Çam Port, where Pine Bay Holiday Club is today, and the pond-swamp behind where Tusan Hotel is located presently were used as a port and the shipyard of Pigale City respectively. At a later date the Pigale Health City and Port became the resting and entertainment place for the soldiers of Alexander the Great who came to Ephesus.
ANAIA – ANEA (SOĞUCAK) – KADI FORTRESS
This coastal town in the Carta area right across the Samos Island was an e commercial centre as well as shelter for pirate ships owing to its convenient structure. During the Anaia Athens-Spartan Wars (B.C. 431-404), this area was occupied by the banished and fugitive people from Samos who supported Athens and who were enemies to them. The people here were supporting Spartans against Samos rulers and the Athenians. The name of this city is associated and known for the events which took place in Thukydides during the era. By 1304, Anea (Kadıkalesi), and the nearby Necropolis not only hosted a Genoese colony but was under Byzantium Ruling also. The Genoese and the native Greeks living in Anea City was also known to have organised pirate attacks against Venetian commercial ships shortly after the Kemalpaşa (Nif) convention. Ania was included in the Turkish territory after Ephesus and İzmir in 1317.
The centre of the semi-religious and semi-political Paionion Union comprised of 12 Ionian cities was located in the “Karyon – Otomatik Tepe” of Kale Tepe situated within borders of the Dilek Peninsula National Park in the Güzelçamlı District. Otomatik Tepe is a sacred place consisting of only one site. Around 700 B.C., the delegates of 12 city-states held regular meetings on certain days of a year in the district of Panionion and took major political decisions there. The purpose of the famous ritual sacrifices made on behalf of Helikonios,, (also known as Sea-God Poseidon) carried out by the lonian troops in this sacred area was so to discuss state-cities, make recommendations and reach mutual decisions together related to the cities. Panionion was known as a prognostic centre as well. For better prognostic ritual, it was necessary to offer the lungs of sacrificed animals to God in one piece.
Neapolis is located in the south of the Güvercin Island like another peninsula and was one of the first settlement areas of Kuşadası established by Ionians in ancient period. Antique city remains is still in existence under the sea today.
The Achaeans settled in in Ilıca when they first migrated to the western Anatoli. The ruins found on the 11 Hills can be considered as evidence that there was a settlement in Kuşadası as far back as 3000 years ago. Walls structured from large rocks can still be seen standing today.
HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND MOSQUES
This is a small island located on the Kuşadası Coast and is connected to the mainland via a breakwater. The island hosts a fortress built in the Byzantium period. The island performed an outpost task during Ottoman Empire times and especially against attacks expected from Greek Islands during the Mora revolt. Furthermore, since the island was utilized in efforts against pirates, it is also referred as the “Pirate Castle” by community. The fortress was renovated, illuminated and put in service for tourism purposes.
ÖKÜZ MEHMED PASHA CARAVANSERAI (KURŞUNLU HAN)
The Caravansary was built for the purposes of sea trading by Öküz Mehmed Pasha and was constructed as two floors and a yard in 1618. (According to some local myths, it was not built by Aydın Governor Öküz Mehmed Pasha but was repaired by him after he returned from a military campaign in Syria in 1607. The bastions and the crenels in Kurşunlu Han indicate that the fortress underwent serious battles. The yard measured approximately 28.50 m x 21.60 m and is surrounded by porches and rooms on both floors. Existence of this Caravansary suggests that Kuşadası was located on the end of one of the caravan paths in the Ottoman Empire and Kuşadası was an export harbour for commercial goods sent from inner Anatolia. The building is described in “Seyahatname” written by traveller Evliya Çelebi in detail.
During Kuşadası’s Christian era, the fortress walls, which were built in square form, had three access gates on them.. These fortress gates were clinched on very thick timbers and were plated with 5 mm-thick metal sheets. The existing fortress gate is the last one still among these. According to the local myths, people who pass underneath this gate can never leave Kuşadası and become one its permanent residents. Increasing population of the city strongly supports this belief.
Since the ancient ages, people have adopted to the principle of living in close proximity of nature and succeeded in finding natural remedies for a number of diseases through careful observations. Here in the Ionian and Roman Periods, Kuşadası and its neighbouring areas provided cures to people through Pygela and the Roman Baths. The Roman Bath which was constructed on top of the therapeutic spring during the most prosperous period of Ephesus and was known to have cured all types of skin ailments in its time still exists in a derelict state on the skirts of the Ilıca Hill today.
Kurşunlu Monastery is situated 600 m above the sea, overlooking the sea behind the district of Davutlar. This monastery close to Ephesus is an excellent example of Byzantium architecture in the region which received a significant number of Christian migrations in the 8thCentury. The reason for the monastery was established at this distance was to protect it from attacks of pagans and to use it for educational purposes.
In the very ancient times, fresh water was carried from Kuşadası to Ephesus by means of aqueducts. Kinkirdos spring located in Değirmendere District reached Ephesus by travelling 45 km along straits and hills through such aqueducts. In the Ottoman period, Öküz Mehmed Pasha built aqueducts to bring water from Burgaz to Kuşadası. Majority of these aqueducts are still intact today.
Andız Tower is located on skirts of the Pilav Mountain on the Atatürk Road from Kuşadası to Aydın Highway. In 2000 B.C., Legel of Karia and a small group of Lydians who migrated from central Anatolia settled in this district. No findings of this small society who lived on agricultural achievements for many long years has reached our era of today. It is presumed that Andız Tower was a watch tower from Hellenistic Period. Precursor Turks who settled in this area initially did so for safety reasons but moved nearer the coastline when the Ottoman conquered Kuşadası in 1423. Ece district located near this area was one of the first Turkmen settlements in Kuşadası also.
KALE İÇİ MOSQUE
Kale İçi Mosque and the Caravanseari was built by Öküz Mehmed Pasha in the 17th Century. This is most remarkable mosque of Kuşadası City. It is structured in square form and has a large dome which covers the main worship area. The walls of the mosque rise in two stages and end with flat mouldings. The final community section in Baghdadi style on the northern face of the mosque was added after its renovation in 1830. Dome frame with 12 arches on the square site was supported with fringed buttress at four corners. Wings of the main entrance door of the mosque are ornamented with geometrical joints and pearly inlays.
Öküz Mehmet Pasha started construction of Kurşunlu Han (the Caravansary) together with Kale İçi Bath and the Mosque. Ilyas Aga, Muğla Sanjak Beg, contributed to these efforts by the construction of a library and filling it with both scientific and Islamic resources before opening it to the community
Hanım Mosque was built in 1658 by Haji Hatice Hatun (wife of the Söke County protector İlyas Aga.)
HADJI IBRAHIM MOSQUE
Haji Ibrahim Mosque was built by a local gentry by the name of İbramaki. Whereas the construction year is unknown it is known to have been repaired in 1952.
Turkmen Mosque was built by Turkomen sect leaders in 1650 and was repaired in 1952.
The builder of the mosque is unknown; however it was renovated in 1952.
DİLEK PENINSULE-THE GREATER MENDERES DELTA NATIONAL PARK
In the Aegean Region; within the jurisdiction of Aydın City / Kuşadası and Söke Counties.
Accessed through Kuşadası-Söke Highway. Whereas its distance to Kuşadası is 28 km, to Söke is 34 km.
Geological structure of the Dilek Peninsula formed by elongation of the Samsun Mountain is composed of Paleozoic crusts, Mesozoic limestone and marbles and Neogen sedimentary blocks. The peninsula characterized with attractive beaches with sandy, clayey, inclined, and elevated coastal forms.
The Greater Menderes Delta located just south of the peninsula has an international marsh land characteristic at the gate of the bay exhibiting fast morphological development and it contains numbers of lagoons and swamp areas as an outputs of this development process. This lagoon system in which fresh and salty waters mix with each other hosts a diverse biological variety in its structure. In this diverse ecosystem, 209 different bird species are observed. This area is also the most important breeding area of the Dalmatian pelican, one of the endangered species and also, one of the other endangered bird species, pygmy cormorant, is also known to nest in here.
Especially northern section of the National Park is covered with rare Mediterranean vegetation. The peninsula conserves the most brilliant and healthy samples of daphnia and chestnut plant belts beside all plant species from the Mediterranean marquis flora. The National Park’s southwest section is filled with chestnut specific to the northern Anatolian forests and one of the rare places where viburnum plant can be found throughout Turkey. Then viburnum and Finike junipers formed a small clusters, holm oak and branchy cedar can collectively only be seen in this park in Turkey.
National Park is the last habitation place which hosts endangered vegetative and animal species. Furthermore, it’s a perfect environment for the Mediterranean seal conserved in Mediterranean countries and the see turtles to habitat in the coasts of national park.
Panionion, political-purpose union of Ionia, established on the skirts of the Dilek Hill on the northeast border of the National Park in Güzelçamlı District around 9th and 8th B.C. was used a meeting place for confederation.
Güvercinada Fortress, located in the Hacıfeyzullah District of Kuşadası City, was built on the mouth of the harbour to protect it. There is an inner fortress (built by Barbaros Hayrettin Pasha) and fortress walls (built by İlyas Aga) on the island. These walls were built to protect against the expected attacks from the Greek islanders and from the sea during the Mora Revolt period. Walls were built approximately 3 m-high and surround the island in its entirety. The stones used in construction of the fortress were transported from Yılancı Cape. To the south of the walls, there is gate protected by two towers with arches and which can be climbed by means of stairs facing toward the south. While the north tower is in a pentagon shape, the southern tower is structured in a cylindrical form. The gap on the gate suggests that there was an inscription hanged on the gate. Construction inscription of walls is placed on northern tower wall. The inscription is comprised of 4 lines and 20 sentences dated 1242 (1826).
ÖKÜZ MEHMET PASHA CARAVANSERAI
This structure was built close to Kuşadası Pier in 1618 and its construction was ordered by grand vizier Öküz Mehmet Pasha. The rectangular courtyard is surrounded by thick and high walls and there are two floored and porched indoor spaces. It was built using rubble stones and reused stone materials. The caravanserai, which has the appearance of a small inner castle, has a triangular tipped dentil at the top. There are rooms lined up all around the spacious courtyards. It has been restored in various periods and is preserved in its original form. There are two sets of stairs leading to the back of the structure from its northwest and southeast corner sections. The entrance to the caravanserai is to the north of the building and the marble door cavity is arched.